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Bees possess an extraordinary array of capabilities in their tiny frames. Whether raising brood, maintaining the hive, creating honey, foraging or any of the other tasks they undertake, bees have an incredible level of productivity, derived from their beautifully evolved bodies and a rich set of senses. They leverage these to the fullest extent possible, especially in relation to how they communicate.
Communication between bees within and away from the colony takes many forms. Each form is extremely well-developed and finely-tuned for the benefit of the colony. To achieve success, bees have strength in all their senses.
We have looked at the majestic power of pheromones within and outside the colony. This invisible but pervasive signal - used for many different purposes - is the oil that keeps the machinery of the colony running smoothly.
While the Queens Mandibular Pheromone (QMP) is perhaps the most well-known and important of the pheromones, even workers use pheromones to signal intent and circumstance.
Bees possess a delicate sense of touch throughout their body, but particularly in their antennae. In the dark innards of the hive all senses are important, but touch is essential.
The purposes for which bees use touch are many, but one often under-appreciated reason is to precisely measure the dimensions of cells as they construct them with wax. They also interpret their dances partially through the sense of touch.
Since the antennae are very sensitive, they are regularly cleaned by the bee, with her front legs. This beautiful video illustrates this.
Bees have very good eyesight. Having multiple sets of eyes with thousands of lenses tends to do that! The interpretation of the images presented by both compound and simple eyes gives bees a powerful way to interpret the space around her.
The existence of facets, the individual lenses of the compound eye, present a tiny visual area to the brain, analogous to a pixel on a TV. The brain then unifies this into a single image for interpretation by the bee.
Witness the curious phenomenon of the wiggle dance. Such is the wonder and delight of this powerful way to communicate, that even the non-beekeeping layman often has awareness of this bee behavior.
This is, by any measure, one of the most efficient forms of communication in the animal world. Through a choreographed dance, bees communicate a surprising amount of information quickly, efficiently and with fine precision.
We will use any excuse to feature the wonderful voice and experience of Sir David Attenborough, so we're fascinated by the delightful explanation of the waggle dance in this video.
Another surprising, yet important, sense bees possess relates to electrical fields.
A bee in flight carries a negative electrical field. These beacons of negative ions fly from flower-to-flower and happen across objects with a positive charge. As it turns out, pollen has a positive charge and - with opposites attracting - a bee landing on a flower and coming close to pollen is a ready-made match.
While bees will go to great lengths to discover and retrieve pollen, the mere act of being in the vicinity will do a lot of the work!
Bees don't just carry an electrical charge but also the ability to detect charges in the local environment. They can use this to detect pending thunderstorms and have been seen to quickly return to the hive when a thunderstorm announces its imminent arrival through static in the air. While this is a valuable defensive mechanism, electrical fields can also confuse a bee and create havoc with its navigational prowess.
With these vital senses at their disposal, bees are highly efficient in what they do and how they communicate.
In many cases, they combine the use of these capabilities. An example is the use of a smoker by beekeepers. It is thought that the reason bees react to a waft of smoke (using smell) is that they sense the potential for danger from a fire. They react by emitting the alarm pheromone, which informs the rest of the colony that danger is nearby.
The use of a smoker, to calm our bees, ends up being a false alarm. But that doesn't stop bees from reacting quickly, by diving back into the hive to munch on honey, so they are fueled-up for their assumed departure to a new location (since they believe the existing one is just about to burn down!). This is a great example of how bees use their senses, both to react and to affect behavior within the colony.